China Strategic Review
China Strategic Review - 11-12/2021
Release Time:2021-12-15
China's International Development Cooperation: Facilitating Global Poverty Reduction Process
Tian Lin

Poverty eradication is the common ideal of mankind and the common mission of the international community. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’s Goal 1 is to end poverty in all it forms everywhere. The Chinese nation has always pursued "no famine under heaven". As the largest developing country in the world, while lifting 8.5 billion people out of poverty, China has always been committed to contributing Chinese wisdom and strength to the cause of global poverty reduction. First, carrying out poverty reduction demonstration. Second, driving income growth and prosperity. Third, paying attention to special groups.

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, China has carried out the largest emergency humanitarian operation since the founding of the People's Republic of China, including providing a large number of anti-epidemic materials and technical guidance, sharing with others experience in containing the virus, providing cash assistance and US dollar support to international organizations, acted upon the Debt Service Suspension Initiative of the G20, and promoting vaccines into a global public product.

China will integrate the Belt and Road Initiative with the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development more closely, taking poverty eradication and improving people's livelihood as the starting point and goal, continue to share China's experience in poverty reduction with other countries and contribute wisdom and strength to accelerating the global process of poverty reduction.

Strengthening International Cooperation on Epidemic Prevention and Control and Enhancing Financing Mechanism
Guo Lian/Ni Jinwei

Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central  Committee, Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission,  attended and delivered important remarks at the third symposium on the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in Beijing on November 19, 2021. President Xi made it clear that China’s new development philosophy should be fully and faithfully implemented, and the BRI needs to aim at high-standard, sustainable and people-centered growth, consolidate the basis for connectivity cooperation, open up new space for  international cooperation, weave a strong safety net of risk prevention and control,  and work for higher-standard cooperation, better deliverables from inputs, higher-quality supply and stronger resilience in development. China needs to keep making progress in advancing high-quality Belt and Road development.

With that bear in mind, at present, strengthening the construction of international cooperation and financing mechanism for epidemic prevention and control is a major basic guarantee for speeding up the construction of a new development paradigm, building a community with a shared future for mankind, supporting the Belt and Road initiative and the construction of domestic and international circulations reinforcing each other, and promoting the recovery and stable development of the global economy.

Establishing international International Cooperation on Epidemic Prevention and Emergency Financing Mechanism

I. Actively Promoting the International Community to Jointly Establish the Cooperative Spirit of "A Community with a Shared Future for Mankind"

II. Formulating a Global Cooperation Plan for Epidemic Prevention and Control and Financing Support in the Case of Emergencies

III. Effectively Responding to the Uncertain Debt Default Risk of Belt and Road Cooperation

IV. Enhancing and Reconstructing the Layout of Industrial Chain Cooperation for the Development of New Globalization

V. Taking Shanghai as a Bridge for China to Carry out Multilateral Cooperation in Anti-virus Fight and Establish Emergency Financing Mechanism

Achieving the Second Centenary Goal by Picking up the Pace in Fostering a New Development Paradigm
Wang Jiacheng

The 18th CPC National Congress clearly put forward China's Two Centenary Goals. The 19th CPC National Congress made strategic arrangements for the realization of the the second Centenary Goal in two stages. The Recommendations of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China for the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and the Long-range Goals Through 2035 examined and adopted by the fifth plenary session of the 19th Central Committee is a guidance for China to march towards the second Centenary Goal. The fifth plenary session of the 19th Central Committee clearly pointed out that the Political Bureau must continue to hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, comprehensively grasp the new development stage, thoroughly implement the new development philosophy, and strive to build a new development paradigm, so as to make a good start fully building a modern socialist country.

When chairing the 20th meeting of the Commission for Further Reform under the CPC Central Committee on July 9, 2021, Xi Jinping emphasized that speeding up the construction of a new development paradigm is a strategic measure for China to take the initiative in future development. It is to enhance our survivability, competitiveness, development, and sustainability in various foreseeable and unforeseeable rough seas, and it is a tough and protracted war that requires indomitable fighting spirit and strategic determination.

China must take development as the top priority, follow the new development philosophy, and pursue the high-quality development with the construction of a comprehensive and coordinated modern economic system as the strategic support. The people-centered philosophy of development should be maintained and achieving the common prosperity of all the people should be the ultimate goal. Development is for the people; it should be pursued by the people and its outcomes should be shared by the people. A stronger sense of gain and happiness of all people should be the criteria for judging each item of the Party’ s work.

The innovation-driven strategy should be implemented by deepening reform to stimulate comprehensive innovation vitality, promoting scientific and technological innovation to generate new development momentum, enhancing the ability of independent innovation, breaking through key core technologies so as to advancing economic and social development to all-round innovation.

China must take expanding domestic demand as a strategic priority, striving to meet domestic demand as the starting point of economic and social development, so as to form a strong domestic market, a high-level dynamic balance between supply and demand, and a virtuous circle of economic development and the improvement of people's livelihood. China will continuously promote opening up as a fundamental state policy by strengthening the coordinated development of the domestic economy and the international economy, forming a new situation of economic and social development with domestic and international circulation as the main body, and raising the level of an open economy so as to promote the process of economic globalization.

China will ensure the Party’s leadership, the people’s status as masters of the country, and law-based governance, improve the system and mechanism for the party's leadership in economic and social development, improve the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, ensure the construction of a new development paradigm, and promote the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics as a whole.

Towards a Common Prosperity Society: Zhejiang’s Governance Experience Embedded in Globalization and China’s Contributions
Liu Tao

The Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) has put forward the goal of making more obvious and substantial progress in promoting common prosperity for all people. In the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035, Zhe Jiang has been selected as a demonstration area for common prosperity and shall play a leading role in the common prosperity of the whole China. Future development should not only promote economic prosperity and development, but also reduce social inequality and the gap between urban and rural areas. 

Five advantages of Zhejiang Province: (1) deep integration into the globalized networked private economy; (2) A small and strong government and a highly dynamic market; (3) Convergent urban-rural differences based on high-level development; (4) Spatial Convergence Development Based on high-level development; (5) Digital governance province. Above strengths together constitute the main core characteristics of Zhejiang's common prosperity society.

However, this does not mean that the Zhejiang model does not have its own problems. Zhejiang is facing not only some universal problems in national development, but also some unique problems on the road to common prosperity, such as (1) how to narrow the gap between various social groups, especially the gap between income and property distribution of social groups (mainly manifested in Gini coefficient); (2) How to constantly lower and expand China until Zhejiang Province enters the olive society dominated by the middle class, which is in line with the European and American standards; (3) how to improve the degree of social common prosperity through the "system combination effect" of three distributions; (4) how to establish an equal public service system covering the whole people through system innovation; (5) It is still a long way to go to clear up the special difficulties on the road of common prosperity in Zhejiang - to establish special governance of common prosperity in mountains and hills and islands for mountain residents and island residents.

However, once Zhejiang succeeds, it is bound to open up a new path for China's common prosperity. In today's globalization, Zhejiang is the first to enter the society of common prosperity. With the rise and success of China as a whole, it will become the focus of the world and a global issue and a new model. Zhejiang's governance experience will also pass the torch of common prosperity to the global society through the summary of China's governance model, and it will also become a new institutional public product that China contributes to the world.

Analysis: The Biden Administration’s China Policy
Ni Feng/Zhang Fan

Since Biden took office, U.S. Policy toward China reveals continuity rather than adjustment. Biden administration has generally carried forward the previous strategic framework of competition with China, and has continued the existing policies in various fields of strategic competition with China to varying degrees. At the same time, the Biden administration's China policy also has its new characteristics. It pays more attention to legislation, alliance system, rules and other means, and some policies are more offensive and risky. These new characteristics are also reflected in various fields of China's competitive strategy to varying degrees.

I.  General Idea of Continuing Strategic Competition

 (1) Continuity of China Policy: Cognition and Strategic Framework

Firstly, the perception of China has become more negative. Secondly, it inherits the previous strategic framework of competition with China.

 (2) Reasons for the Continuity of China Policy

The fundamental reason for continuity of China policy is the structural factor in the strength comparison between China and the United States. When Biden came to power, the epidemic accelerated the narrowing of the strength gap between China and the United States. Under the background of the epidemic, all countries have to focus more on the idle assets, and the competition among big countries has regressed from competition for the incremental market to more intense inventory competition, which is more zero sum.

The Biden administration believes that the difference in population size between China and the United States determines that the United States cannot prevent China from catching up and surpassing in economic aggregate. Therefore, it tries to offset China's quantitative advantage with technological iteration and weaken the actual impact of China's economic aggregate catching up and surpassing; The US Republican Party attaches importance to strength competition and tends to change the behavior of its opponents through external pressure, but the Democratic Party has always attached importance to the internal shaping of its opponents and emphasized the so-called values. Therefore, the Biden government not only inherits and pays more attention to the competition with China in the ideological field, but also continues the previous geostrategic competition with China, and puts more emphasis on winning the advantage of such competition through allies and partnerships.

(3) Continuity of China Policy: Concrete Embodiment

The Biden administration continues to compete with China in high-tech, geo-strategic and ideological fields, inherits the relevant policies of its predecessor, and is not in a hurry to withdraw from its predecessor's policies, especially in the field of economy and trade. Under the domestic political background of trade protectionism and bipartisan consensus on China, it is difficult for the Biden administration to give up the traditional policy tool with distinctive trade protectionism.

II. New Features and Practices

(I) Paying More Attention to Legislation to Regulate and Boost Competition with China

Firstly, solidify the US strategy towards China with the bill. The most remarkable feature of the China strategic competition act is to fix the strategic cognition and thinking on China, which have been popular in the US strategic circles in recent years and gradually recognized by both parties, in the form of legislation.

Secondly, the bill will guide the strategic competition with China in various fields. The China strategic competition act will increase capital investment, implement the strategic thinking of "the whole government" and "the whole society" on China into all fields of strategic competition with China and guide its relevant activities. In fact, while inheriting the trump administration's strategic competition framework for China, it will further regulate and guide policies in relevant fields through legislation, which is specifically reflected in the field of science and technology, economy and trade, geography and ideology.

(2) Paying More Attention to the Multiplier Role of the Alliance System

The US strategic community has always attached importance to the "multiplier" role of the alliance system in its foreign strategy. The trump government takes the alliance system as an important tool for strategic competition with China. The Biden government continues this strategic path and pays more attention to the power "multiplier" role of the alliance system.

(3) Offensive and Adventurous

Compared with the policies of Trump administration, some of the Biden administration's China policies are more offensive and risky. The former is mainly reflected in the field of ideology and geo-strategic competition, while the latter is mainly reflected in the geo-strategic competition with China in the Indo-Pacific region.

III. Maintaining Strategic Concentration and Taking the Initiative to Grasp the Rhythm

The Trump Administration has brought China-US relations into a major dilemma in the past four years. How the Biden administration formulates and implements its China policy will not only affect the direction of China-US relations in the next four years, but also have a significant impact on whether the two countries can achieve competitive coexistence by 2035. The common challenge facing China and the United States in the coming years is that, on the one hand, both sides must properly handle the short-term risks and conflicts in China-US relations, on the other hand, it is necessary to set up a framework and rules for controlling China-US strategic competition in the coming decades.

The US-Japan-Australia-India Quadrilateral Security Dialogue and ASEAN: Progress, Constraints and Prospects
Li Qingsi/Wang Daqian

Since the concept of Indo-Pacific was put forward, it has gradually attracted the attention of academic circles. In recent years, it has been paid more and more attention by the governments of relevant countries, and their respective Indo-Pacific strategies have been issued one after another. Strengthening the strategic layout in the Indo-Pacific region and striving for the commanding heights of geopolitics in the 21st century has become the key goal of the United States, Japan, Australia and India and the so-called quadrilateral security dialogue (the Quad mechanism). The association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is located in the geographical center of the Indo-Pacific region and has become the focus of the Quad mechanism, which will have an important impact on the strategic pattern of the region. This paper first sort out the evolution process of the Quad mechanism, discusses the Indo-Pacific concept of the United States, Japan, Australia, India and ASEAN, then analyzes the progress of the relationship between the United States, Japan, Australia, India and ASEAN and the restrictive factors of the interaction between the Quad mechanism and ASEAN, and looks forward to the future of the relationship between the Quad mechanism and ASEAN.

Since the Quad mechanism was restarted under the impetus of Trump administration, its intention towards China has become more and more clear, and ASEAN with geographical advantages has become an important target forthe Quad mechanism. However, under the impact of the Quad mechanism on ASEAN's centrism, that is, ASEAN makes comprehensive consideration from its own interests, the strategic effectiveness of the four countries to win over ASEAN is greatly reduced. In the future, although the United States, Japan, Australia and India are committed to seeking continuous interaction with ASEAN, the progress of bilateral relations will be limited due to existing constraints. ASEAN will continue to adhere to its strategic positioning, maintain diplomatic balance with the help of multilateral platforms, play an active role in the evolution of major country relations, promote the development of ASEAN countries, and promote the transformation of regional order to a more open and inclusive direction. In the future, China should not only continue to create a safe and stable surrounding environment, but also pay attention to and strengthen exchanges and interaction with ASEAN countries, so as to hedge against various challenges brought by changes in regional pattern.

Causes of the Breakup of the Soviet Union and its Lessons - On the 30 Years After the Breakup of the Soviet Union
Yu Sui

Thirty years after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the discussion on the causes and lessons of the disintegration of the Soviet Union at home and abroad has never stopped. On the occasion of the achievements of the Communist Party of China in the past century, it is more necessary for us to make further in-depth discussion on this issue.

Here are some brief points about the lessons of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The first point: the CPC should examine the breakup of the Soviet Communist Party and the disintegration of the Soviet Union from the historical perspective of how to treat the party. The second point: the CPC should correct the position of the subjective and objective factors of the failure of the reform of the Soviet Communist Party. The third point: the CPC should comprehensively end and seriously draw profound historical lessons from the failure of the Soviet Communist Party. The fourth point: the CPC should accurately weigh and properly deal with the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union on China.

On November 16, the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee announced the resolution on the CPC's major achievements and historical experience in a century of struggle. The author pays special attention to the ten aspects of historical experience gained by the party over the past century and the organic relationship between them, that is, adhering to the party's leadership, adhering to the people's supremacy, adhering to theoretical innovation, adhering to independence, adhering to the Chinese road, thinking about the world, adhering to exploration and innovation, daring to struggle, adhering to the united front and adhering to self revolution. The historical experience in these ten aspects is the great spiritual wealth won by millions of Chinese communists after a hundred years of struggle. The CPC's leadership is absolute and comes first. Without the CPC's leadership, there will be no achievements of new China and no great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. No other political force in China can replace the leadership of the Communist Party. The purpose of the CPC is to seek the well-being of the people, serve the people, rely on the people and take root in the people, adhere to the people first. When the CPC leads the people in revolutionary struggle and construction, it must first clarify what theory should be taken as the guidance. How to do it, the CPC must rely on themselves, not on or even subordinate to any external force. Earlier, it proposed to focus on self-reliance and supplemented by foreign aid. The essence is to adhere to independence. The same is true of internal affairs and independent peace diplomacy. The premise of independence is to adhere to the Chinese road based on China's historical characteristics, cultural traditions and the will of the Chinese people. At the same time, the Chinese Communists know that China cannot develop without the world, and the world also needs China, so the CPC insist on thinking about the world. The CPC must face the world, draw on the achievements of human civilization to develop ourselves, do not engage in closed door, implement reform and opening up, and adhere to exploration and innovation. In doing so, The CPC will inevitably encounter internal and external difficulties. The CPC must overcome them and deal with the obstacles and resistance caused by external forces that curb China's development. Therefore, The CPC should persist in daring to fight. In order to achieve the goal of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the CPC must unite all forces that can be united and mobilize all positive factors that can be mobilized. This requires upholding the United Front. Whether the CPC can do all this well depends on the leadership of the party. Therefore, the party itself must continue to strengthen and purify and adhere to self revolution. From adhering to the party's leadership to adhering to self revolution is an organic whole, which runs through the historical experience of ten aspects. The historical experience of the Communist Party of China in these ten aspects will be used as a weapon to forever record the history of world socialism and international communist movement.

Pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative as a Cooperation Platform Available to All Countries
Li Changjiu

The “Belt and Road” connect some 65 countries, which account for about more than 4.4 billion world population. The infrastructure construction is large and the prospect is broad. It will contribute to world economic growth by 80%, according to the McKinsey research. The Belt and Road Initiative is becoming an international cooperation platform. 

Back in 2013 during which, President Xi Jinping raised the idea of building a Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. For the past 8 years, 140 Belt and Road partner countries and more than 30 international organizations signed Belt and Road cooperation documents with China. The construction of infrastructure such as roads, railways, ports and airports has expanded rapidly. The "Belt and Road" has been connected in all directions, and the "one road" is connecting all corners of the world.

William H. Overholt, senior research fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School, said in his article entitled “China and America A New Game in a New Era”, published on August 8, 2021 on the Eurasia website, “BRI is an inspiring vision—as was the Bretton Woods vision.” The article said, “BRI has major advantages. It puts mutual development at the core of China’s policy and brand. Its roads, railroads, ports, and telecommunications are connecting Africa and Central Asia. When BRI promises a road, it gets built immediately, whereas the atherosclerotic World Bank is likely to take 8 years to make a decision. BRI rides and accelerates the great waves of the 21st century; the integration of Eurasia10 and the emergence of Africa. ” It also said, “BRI mostly services the parts of the world least affected by Bretton Woods successes; Central Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Just denouncing it, as recent U.S. policymakers have done, has only discredited ourselves.”“We have enormous common interests that are currently being neglected; China is not a demon and our allies are not angels.” “Sino-American collaboration has given our world real hope of addressing the fundamental challenges of the next generation; climate change and environmental degradation. If China were still mired in poverty, as is India, there would be little hope of meeting these challenges.”

The Influence of Taiwan's "Online Army" on the Orientation of Public Opinion and its Lessons for Chinese Mainland
Wang Jianmin/Zhong Hong

With the development of information globalization, mobile communication and network media have become an indispensable part of life. Internet public opinion plays an important role as the main channel for Internet users to express their opinions. When Internet public opinion becomes a controllable means, it will have an important social and political impact on the guidance of social public opinion. In recent years, there have been some new and important changes in the direction of public opinion in Taiwan. The emergence and development of online media, especially the specific "online army", has significantly increased its impact on the direction of public opinion. In particular, the DPP authorities have constantly manipulated and guided public opinion by feeding the "online army" and infiltrated into Chinese mainland online media. The new development of network media in Taiwan and the increasingly prominent problem of "online army" have important enlightenment for the mainland to strengthen the construction and supervision of network new media.

I. Taiwan's online propaganda war uses network manipulation as an election tool

II. The DPP feeds the "online army" and distorts the social value orientation

III. The "1450 Cyber Army" has gradually penetrated into the mainland's online media, discrediting the mainland and distorting and subverting Chinese history

IV. The Tsai authority used the media to strengthen the operation of ideological issues

IV. The Enlightenment of Taiwan's "online army" to the mainland to strengthen the development and supervision of network new media.

Top 10 World News of 2021
Sun Haichao/Yang Chengxu

1. Britain's Brexit came to an end, and both Europe and Britain were seriously weakened.

2. The US presidential election farce continues to ferment, and the Capitol Hill riots are ridiculed by the world.

3. The United States continues to use Russia to kidnap the EU, and it is difficult to improve the security situation in Europe

4. The extension of China-Russia Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation has made China-Russia relations a model of win-win cooperation among major countries

5. China has eradicated absolute poverty, built a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way and achieved a great miracle that amazed the world.

6. US troops withdrew from Afghanistan in a hurry, and this Kabul moment was worse than the Saigon moment of 1975.

7. The AUKUS was deeply criticized, and the French submarine contract was prized, angering French President Emmanuel Macron.

8. During the virtual meeting between the heads of China and the United States, President Xi suggested the way forward for China-US relations and the direction of world development.

9. The French Presidential Election is full of waves, and the “Zemmour phenomenon” is thought-provoking.

10. COVID-19 epidemic rebounded strongly, and the world suffered from the vaccine divide.

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